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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Osborne, 2001

This experiment examined whether anxiety might account for racial differences in academic performance and gender differences in math performance under stereotype threat. Data reflecting the performance of approximately 28,000 high school seniors on vocabulary, reading, and mathematics were drawn from a national database. The database also included students self-reports of anxiety they experienced when taking the tests. Results showed that whites tended to outperform blacks on these tests and also experienced less anxiety when taking them. Statistically controlling for anxiety reduced the strength of the relation between race and test performance. Similarly, boys reported lower levels of anxiety and outperformed girls in mathematics, and statistically controlling for anxiety reduced the gender-performance link. This correlational study with a large real-world sample suggests that anxiety might help account for reduced performance under conditions that typically produce stereotype threat in controlled laboratory settings.

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