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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Marx & Stapel, 2006a

This study investigated the role of emotional responses in reaction to stereotype threat. Various emotions were measured both before and after individuals took a test under either the presence or absence of stereotype threat. For those students operating under stereotype threat, heightened anxiety was experienced before taking the test and heightened frustration occurred after the test was concluded. Frustration correlated negatively with performance in the threat condition, such that higher levels of frustration were associated with poorer test performance. Surprisingly, feelings of anxiety were unrelated to performance on the test. No changes in emotions were exhibited by individuals not under stereotype threat. This study shows that stereotype threat does produce emotional consequences and that these emotions change over time.

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