Kiefer
& Sekaquaptewa,
2007
This study examined the
moderating role of implicit stereotype endorsement on
stereotype threat. In the experiment, female
undergraduates completed a math test that was described
as either diagnostic (stereotype threat) or nondiagnostic (control) of mathematical ability. After finishing the task, they completed implicit
measures (see Greenwald et al., 1998) of gender
stereotyping (i.e., stronger malemath than femalemath
associations), gender identification (i.e., stronger
selffemale than selfmale associations), and math
identification (i.e., stronger selfmath than othermath
associations), and an explicit measure of mathgender
stereotyping. Math performance was lower in the
threat compared with the control condition, but math
performance was also moderated by implicit gender
stereotyping. In the control condition, stronger
implicit
gendermath stereotypes predicted lower math
scores. In the stereotype threat condition,
implicit gender stereotyping was unrelated to math
performance. There were no significant effects
associated with implicit gender or implicit math
identification or explicit mathgender stereotyping. These data suggest that women with stronger implicit
stereotypes linking men with mathematics are more
susceptible to the negative consequences of stereotypes,
even in conditions that typically do not give rise to
stereotype threat.
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