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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Gonzales, Blanton, & Williams, 2002

Stereotype threat can occur based on any social identity where there exists a stereotype of poor performance. This paper addresses the risk of stereotype threat based on both gender and ethnicity experienced by Latina women. In this experiment, White and Latino/a undergraduates were asked to complete a difficult test measuring mathematical and analytical ability. Half the participants were told that the test was a good indicator of their "actual abilities and limitations" (stereotype threat for Latinas) whereas the other half heard no mention about ability (control). Latinos performed more poorly on the test when it was described as diagnostic, but Whites revealed no difference in performance in the diagnostic and nondiagnostic conditions. Women showed a similar pattern such that performance was lower when the test was described as diagnostic of ability. Both Latino men and women showed lower performance under stereotype threat, and Latinos showed greater evidence of stereotype threat based on gender than did whites.

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