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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Aronson, Jannone, McGlone, & Johnson-Campbell, In Press

In this experiment, high achieving White and African-American undergraduates were asked to think about a prominent politician from the 2008 presidential campaign before completing a difficult verbal exam that had been described as diagnostic of ability. Immediately prior to taking the exam, participants were given several pictures of John McCain, Barack Obama, or no photographs (control) along with identical quotes attributed to each individual or to "an American politician" (control). Participants in these conditions were then asked to list two benefits of a McCain presidency, two benefits of an Obama presidency, or, in the control condition, the benefits of being politically informed. A second control condition involved participants completing the exam without being provided any of this information. Results showed that Whites performed significantly better than African-American students across all conditions. The authors suggest that the failure of focusing attention on Barack Obama in eliminating racial differences in test performance raise questions about his effectiveness as a role model. Given the timing of this experiment (mid-June to mid-July, 2008), it is quite plausible that data were collected at a time when Obama's accomplishments were not particularly clear or salient. Consistent with the findings of Marx, Ko, & Friedman (in press), having individuals think about Barack Obama does not always eliminate typical performance differences under stereotype threat.

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