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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Andreoletti & Lachman, 2004

This experiment examined the role of education as a buffer against stereotype threat regarding the elderly and memory performance. Young (average age 31.8 years), middle-aged (47.7 years), and old (69.4 years) normal functioning women and men were told they would complete several tasks involving memory. One-third of the participants were told that the tests revealed age differences (stereotype threat), one-third were told that the tests produce no age differences (stereotype invalidation), and one-third were told nothing about age difference on the test (control). Results showed that for individuals with less education (less than a 4-year college degree), recall was lower in both the stereotype threat and stereotype invalidation conditions compared with the control condition. Any mentioning of the elderly stereotype appeared to reduce memory performance, and this was true for all age groups. For those individuals higher in education (a 4-year college or more advanced degree), performance was higher in the stereotype invalidation compared with the other two conditions. Education rather than age moderated the effects of stereotype threat manipulations. 

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