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stereotype threat consequences vulnerable situations mechanisms reduce criticisms unresolved issues
Ambady, Shih, Kim, & Pittinsky, 2001

These studies focused in the emergence of stereotype threat in children. In Experiment 1, Asian-American girls ranging in age from kindergarten to 8th grade completed tasks that were intended to highlight their Asian identity, their female identity, or neither identity (control). Following these tasks, all girls completed items from a grade-appropriate standardized math test. Girls from lower-elementary and middle school grades showed a similar effect: math performance was bolstered when Asian identity had been made salient but harmed when female identity had been made salient. Upper-elementary students, in contrast, performed best when their female identity had been highlighted.  Experiment 2 focused on Asian-American boys. Boys in lower-elementary and middle school grades performed better in the gender and race identity than in the control condition, providing evidence of the potential beneficial consequences of stereotypes suggesting strong math performance. Upper-elementary boys performed better when gender than when race was highlighted. These results show that children can be affected by stereotype threat in a fashion similar to adults. Upper-elementary students showed a pattern that might reflect the typical presumed superiority of one's own sex group during upper-elementary years.

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